Operating an amateur radio station is an enjoyable and highly rewarding pursuit. You will connect with people from all over the world, transmit and receive information in return, plus experiment with different equipment to broaden your technical knowledge.
But first, you need to learn how to operate a ham radio.
In this article, we will go through the steps to obtaining a license, setting up your device, and using it professionally.
Want to get into ham radio but are unsure where to start? Keep reading for the answer you need.
Detailed Guide to Operate a Ham Radio
What to prepare
Ham radio for beginners is not expensive. You can begin with a handheld Baofeng transceiver, which is a popular ham radio for preppers. Its price starts at $22.86 online, and you can also buy it at an outlet.
If you are into building your own station with fancy ham radio equipment, you will need the following:
- Transceiver power supply
- Morse code key
- SWR meter
Step 1. Obtain a license
You need to obtain a ham license before transmitting your first message on the radio network. This step will involve learning with a study guide and sitting for a test.
Through the acquisition of a license, you will learn critical skills, such as what radio mode to set, what frequencies to communicate on, how to connect to other users, and other ham radio basics.
For the entry Technician license, you will sit a 35-question exam. After passing the test, you will be granted a call sign. Think of it as an identification for a ham radio operator. As you transmit, you will be required to speak or provide your call sign periodically.
Technician hams have a limited number of radio frequencies to listen to. To extend your range, you need to take a General license. To gain access to all frequencies, you must register for an Extra license test.
- Note: The cost of ham radio license ranges from $10 to $15. You must renew yours every ten years. Learn this guide for more about the complete guide to renew your ham radio license.
Step 2. Set up your ham radio
Each model requires a different ham radio setup. So, refer to the setup diagram that comes in the box to install it.
Some manufacturers will ask you to install a type of computer software, then transfer the program into the device to activate it. If that is your case, follow the manual’s instructions for this step.
Other than that, you will need to:
- Take the radio out of the box
- Connect the transceiver with a power supply or charger
- Set up the antenna and tuner
- Plug in the microphone and Morse Code key
Step 3. Tune the antenna
Tuning the antenna is crucial to optimizing the signal strength you receive and transmit. This will include shortening or lengthening the antenna to get the perfect signals. Follow these steps:
- Secure your radio and antenna in place.
- Connect the radio and antenna to an SWR meter.
- Follow the instructions of the radio model you choose to adjust the radio setting and tune the antenna accordingly.
Step 4. Set the frequency
With a Technician license, you can transmit on VHF, UHF, and microwave frequency bands. So, proceed to set the radio to the frequency range that you intend to transmit on.
You can find VHF (very high frequency) ham radio band on 144 to 148MHz. The VHF band can spread up to 100 miles and suffers less interference from nearby obstructions. It is used for long range ham radio and is preferred by most ham enthusiasts.
The UHF (ultra high frequency) ham radio band resides on the frequencies of 420 to 450MHz. Though UHF signals travel a shorter distance compared to VHF, the band provides a much larger bandwidth.
Step 5. Start transmitting on your ham radio
Now that all is set, you can start your first conversation on your ham radio. To begin, use the power switch to turn on the device. Then, search for an unoccupied frequency.
- If you are using a Morse Code key
By ears, check if anyone is transmitting or key in Q-R-L, which means “is anyone using this frequency?” When no one answers, the frequency is ready for your call. Make your first call by keying CQ DE [your call sign] K.
Doing so will send your signals to random contacts. Any hams available at that time can pick up your call.
- If you are using a phone ham radio
Wait until the frequency is clear, hold the microphone about one inch away from your mouth, and say “is anyone using this frequency?” When you are sure that the channel is unoccupied, start your call by saying “Hello CQ this is [your call sign] calling 20 meters.”
Feel free to repeat your message a second time when you don’t receive any responses. If it takes too long to hear a reply, drop off and move to another frequency.
When a ham picks up your call, inform him or her that this is your first time using the radio, so they will avoid using too much jargon.
Step 6. End your conversation
Hams have typical messages to start a conversation, and the same applies to ending one. A traditional way to say Best Regards or Goodbye is 73, which has been used since 1859.
You can send it via your Morse Code key, speak it on your phone ham radio, and leave it at the end of your email or message to another ham.
Can anyone operate a ham radio?
Anyone can purchase and listen to ham radio, but ham radio operation requires an official license issued by the Federal Communications Commission.
When transmitting on a ham network, you will need to periodically provide your sign call, which is assigned to you along with the license.
If you fail to identify yourself, other hams might doubt your authenticity. Since it is illegal to speak to unlicensed operators, they might report you to the authority.
Obtaining a license is not too difficult, though. You will learn from a study guide and sit a test of 35 questions. The test will provide you with the necessary knowledge on operating a ham radio, such as electronics theory and basic operation rules.
Can civilians use ham radio?
Civilians can listen to transmissions on ham radios, but one isn’t allowed to send signals unless he or she has a license. Violating this regulation can result in a heavy fine.
Nonetheless, you can use an amateur radio to call for help in an emergency. Many preppers purchase a ham radio, use it only to listen, and transmit during emergencies. You can ham radio prep the same way if you don’t want to sit the test.
How does a ham radio work?
Ham radio operates on a radio wave spectrum. This spectrum includes numerous bands, each for a specific technical purpose.
When you set your radio to the right frequency, you can transmit messages all over the world and even to the Moon.
How far can handheld ham radio transmit?
In normal conditions, a handheld ham radio range can only extend to two miles. However, transmission from a ham station base can reach a distance of up to 18 miles. To further increase the range, hams may install a ham radio repeater nearby.
Within six steps, you have learned how to operate a ham radio like an old-timer. The more you dive into the world of ham radio, the more fascinating it will become.
Maybe one day, you’ll be the hero of your neighborhood who keeps everyone safe and connected during a disaster.
If you have any further questions, don’t hesitate to contact us. We are more than glad to assist our fellow hobbyists. Thank you for reading!
Robert is our content writer. He has in-depth knowledge about two-way radio communication, including mobile, handheld, and base, as well as ham radio satellite and emergency communication. He is in charge of researching and reviewing the best and latest products as well as gathering information about your queries and issues in using ham radios.